两组365wm完美体育官网登录的学生,一组隶属于 华盛顿计划 and the other with the nonpartisan Student Policy Network — welcomed the announcement of sanctions against two Maltese officials and the daughter of the former Angolan president.

去年12月,美国政府宣布.S. 国务院宣布对康拉德·米兹实施旅行制裁, 基斯Schembri和伊莎贝尔·多斯桑托斯.

Mizzi, 前马耳他能源和水资源保护部长, 和Schembri, 马耳他总理的前参谋长, are accused of awarding government contracts for the construction of a power plant and related services in exchange for kickbacks and bribes.

达芙妮·卡鲁阿娜·加利西亚, 一位著名的马耳他记者, 博客及反贪活动人士, 揭穿阴谋. 她后来被一枚汽车炸弹暗杀. Yorgen Fenech, a prominent Maltese businessman, is on trial for plotting the murder. 其中两名爆炸嫌疑人正在等待审判. 第三名被告已经认罪.

dos Santos is the daughter of former Angolan Prime Minister Eduardo dos Santos, 从1979年到2017年谁统治这个国家. 她被指控, 还有她已故的丈夫, of misappropriating public funds for her own benefit as chair of a state-owned enterprise.

People holding placards reading "Mafia Government" and photos of killed journalist 达芙妮·卡鲁阿娜·加利西亚, 举行一场由加利西亚的家人和公民运动组织的抗议活动, 11月29日, 2019年瓦莱塔总理办公室外, 马耳他.
Police and forensic experts inspect the wreckage of a car bomb that killed journalist 达芙妮·卡鲁阿娜·加利西亚 close to her home in Bidnija, 马耳他, 10月16日, 2017.

Students in the 华盛顿计划’s Global Magnitsky Human Rights Accountability Act Clinic submitted to the Departments of State and Treasury a report outlining the allegations against Mizzi 和Schembri, 并要求对他们实施制裁, in 2020. 学生政策网络, 马格尼茨基诊所的一个由学生领导的分支机构, 提交了一份关于多斯桑托斯的类似报告. 两人都曾与一个著名的无党派人权组织合作 乔治洛佩兹,牧师. 西奥多·米. Hesburgh C.S.C.美国和平研究学院名誉教授 克罗克国际和平研究所 也是经济制裁、建设和平及相关问题的权威专家.

大学生参与制裁工作是不寻常的. 更常见的, 这样的工作是由法律系学生做的, pro-bono attorneys or nongovernmental organizations with some sort of background in the law.

The United States Capitol Building is off to the left and in the open sky is the 华盛顿计划's logo.


The 365wm完美体育官网登录 华盛顿计划 offers students the ability to study off-campus, 沉浸在华盛顿特区的政治和文化生活中.

这是国务院规定的, 对Mizzi的制裁, Schembri and dos Santos bar them and their immediate family members from entering the United States. 金融制裁, 属于财政部的职权范围, 尚未公布, 但也可能即将到来.

托马斯Kellenberg, 律师和前法学教授, leads the Magnitsky Clinic in his role as executive director of the 华盛顿计划, 自1998年该项目成立以来,他一直担任该职位. Kellenberg还协助学生政策网络进行制裁工作. 他毕业于365wm完美体育官网登录和哈佛大学法学院.

“We can’t show a direct causal relationship between our dossier and the (Mizzi 和Schembri) sanctions,凯伦伯格说, noting the government does not typically disclose the underlying basis for sanctions, 只知道这个案子的基本事实. “But clearly, it was part of what the State Department looked at when making a decision.”

他认为制裁的影响是三重的. 从惩罚的角度来看, 他说, 他们“阻止这些人获得我们在美国拥有的机会.S. 来这里参观,送孩子来这里上学.“与此同时,”具有象征意义的重要是,美国政府应该采取行动.S. 认识到这些人需要受到制裁。. “And it sends a signal to the Maltese government that they need to take corruption seriously.”


“当记者被杀时,民主就会受损.” ——Kellenberg

Kellenberg, who also serves as executive director of the nonprofit International Human Rights Advocates, 在2020年春天建立了马格尼茨基诊所, 就在大流行开始之前. 他很早就盯上了加利西亚的案子. 这件事已经在报刊上有了充分的记载. 它还涉及广为宣传的“巴拿马文件”,泄露了超过11份文件.5 million financial and legal documents exposing wide-spread fraud and corruption, 除了普通的避税之外, 在全球精英中, 包括Mizzi和Schembri.

“当记者被杀时,民主就会受损, 所以个人, 我以为这是个重要的案子,凯伦伯格说. 从学生的角度来看, 他说, it also “shines a light in a whole variety of different ways on the nexus between corruption and human rights violations.”

马耳他 is an archipelago in the central Mediterranean between Sicily and the North African coast. 安哥拉是非洲南部西海岸的一个国家.

洛佩兹说, 与克洛克研究所合作, “在汤姆的领导下, 这群人充分利用了他们在历史上的多学科背景, 政治科学, business and economics to conduct the deep dives you need to uncover illicit money and to cross-reference the violations and atrocities they found. The work of the clinic was cited to me as outstanding by a State Department colleague working on sanctions issues in November. 除非你的工作与众不同,否则你不会得到这种认可.”


一般来说, students who participate in the Magnitsky Clinic work as a team to request sanctions against an individual or entity that has engaged in “serious human rights abuses” or “significant acts of corruption” in violation of U.S. 法律或政策. 这包括对公共记录和调查的细致研究, 以及其他公开的文件. Students rely heavily on the work of the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, 发表了“巴拿马文件”.”

“It takes an immense amount of research from open-source materials,凯伦伯格说.

Schembri/Mizzi档案长达39页. 多斯桑托斯案有45页. 每一个都花了几个月的时间来编写.


格雷格•米勒, 钱德勒大学经济学专业的高级荣誉学生, 亚利桑那州, 知道这个过程有多难. 前罗德奖决赛选手, 米勒对Mizzi/Schembri和dos Santos的档案都有贡献, 起初是马格尼茨基的学生,后来是学生政策网络, 他和高级政治学荣誉专业的帕特里克·艾莫尼共同创立了这家公司, a fellow Magnitsky student and Rhodes finalist and his roommate in the 华盛顿计划.

关于加利西亚的案例, 米勒, 谁主要对住房政策感兴趣,可能会去法学院, 说, “I mostly worked on forming the timeline of everything that occurred to visualize how the corruption took place, 特别是关于(加利西亚)被杀的时间. I also created diagrams to figure out how each (shell) company related to the next and who was paying who and who was getting kickbacks.”


“It was the perfect opportunity to bring the research and writing skills I already had into this new environment and then fine tune them in a legal context.” 格雷格•米勒

他在多斯桑托斯案中也是这么做的, 他说, 与学生政策网络的其他成员密切合作, 还有人权律师, to document her alleged crimes and push for sanctions against her and her husband.

从对公共政策和法律都感兴趣的人的角度来看, and simply as an introduction to the Magnitsky Act and the complicated world of international sanctions, 这是一次宝贵的经历, 米勒说.

“It was the perfect opportunity to bring the research and writing skills I already had into this new environment and then fine tune them in a legal context,他说.

He 说 he was sitting in his apartment eating Goldfish when news of the sanctions came down. “太疯狂了,”他说. “I’m a college student eating Goldfish and there’s this international story that I’m involved with.”

除了制裁工作, 包括两个悬而未决的制裁请求, the Student Policy Network pursues other public policy research and advocacy projects as well. 最近, it published a study examining the social and economic benefits of driving cards for undocumented residents in 印第安纳州, which is helping to inform debate around the issue in the state general assembly.

Kellenberg, 对他来说, praised the Student Policy Network — and 米勒 specifically — for its work on the dos Santos case, 称之为“优秀”.”

“他们正在做的工作是最高水平的,”他说. “他们的档案和我们在课堂上整理的任何档案一样好.”

他补充说, “I have the utmost respect for Greg and Patrick and the work that they are doing, 我希望它能继续下去.”

米勒预计会的. 他指出,人们对该组织一直很感兴趣, 还有它的使命, 在各个年龄段的学生中.

“我们建立了一个领导结构,”他说,“我们的参与度很高. 我们让年轻人参与进来.”